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The enormous wealth inequality is an important feature of Venezuelan society. This continues to negatively affect the sustainable development and contributes to political instability. What already seems unlikely that Venezuela will meet all the Millennium Development Goals (1990 – 2015) in reducing poverty in spite of the zeal for reform and promises of the current administration?
This explains the popularity of reforms aimed at achieving a more just society against the powerful vested interests to maintain the status quo. The current administration has defined the reform and poverty reduction agenda “Bolivarian revolution” and to use oil profits to fund social programs aimed at reducing poverty.
The Venezuelan economy is dependent on its oil and about a third of its gross domestic product (GDP) and over 50% of government revenues are generated by oil and its derivatives. The government has made efforts to diversify into the exploitation of mineral reserves, including iron, aluminum, coal and cement, and try to bridge the gap in the transport infrastructure and energy.
The Government is also privatizing loss-making SOEs and the search for foreign investment in the petrochemical industry, mining, forestry and tourism – but with an emphasis on strict control of state assets. Improved tax collection, and now represents the remaining 50% of government revenue.
GDP grew by over 600% since 1996 has reached 206,125 billion Bolivar in 2004. Figures for 2001 and 2002 would have been higher had it not been for the nine-week national strike and a general closing down, which affected industrial production. During this period, economic activity and oil production has dropped dramatically, but has since resumed. For 2005, the official rate of GDP is expected to be around $ 116.2 billion, representing an annual growth rate of over 9%.
Other Latin American countries have experienced similar gains and the economic outlook for the entire region is positive in the short or medium term. If the current social and anti-poverty policies are being effective, economic barriers to participation should be reduced and this in turn increases the GDP and tax revenue. However, unemployment has remained stubbornly high throughout the past decade, and about 12% of the 12 million strong workforce was unemployed in 2005.
Consumer prices in Venezuela were high in 1990, but have been declining since 1998. The year 2006 is expected to fall a further 5% according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). High rates of inflation have always been a big problem for the economies of Latin America and other developing countries. In 1970, 1980 and 1990, high inflation was largely due to commodity price shocks, and a loose fiscal and monetary policy. The first of these was particularly problematic for Venezuela because its economy is based mainly produces and exports of primary goods.
The main unit of money in Venezuela Bolivar. In February 2002, the Venezuelan government removed foreign exchange controls and exchange rate fell to 25% of the bolivar against the dollar. Bolivar continued to weaken against the dollar and the average annual exchange rate in 2005 was 2090 Fri Bolivar dollars, five times in 1996, when it was 417 on Fri Bolivar in U.S. dollars.
Surprisingly, given the dominance of the oil industry, Venezuela sources two-thirds of its electricity from hydroelectric plants. However, it remains a major emissions of carbon dioxide due to its oil industry. Mining operations in illegal mining in particular is causing environmental damage in tropical forests and rivers. Indigenous communities face the destruction of their way of life and violence in the mining industry, and require greater protection of the state. People Bari, Yukpa and Wayuu Indians in the State of Zulia, many of whom voted for the Fifth Republic, held a rally in Caracas against coal mining in the Sierra de Perija in 2005.
Gold mining causes mercury pollution, excessive sedimentation and deforestation. In July 2005, the environment and resources, Jacqueline Faria said the government aims to prohibit the extraction of the state of Amazonas and Bolivar check the status of mining. Mining is prohibited along the Caroni River due to high levels of mercury and cyanide. Illegal mining tend to be more vulnerable to people who are extremely poor working conditions and dangerous. All long-term solution to stop illegal mining is to provide alternative jobs for the miners.
While the devastating floods hit the north of Venezuela in 1999, drought hit the country in recent years. The government encourages domestic consumers to be more careful. Currently, the cost of water in Venezuela’s Bolivar is 700 per 1000 l, but the government says that this price will increase. Currently, only 21% of treated wastewater correctly, but the government says it will increase this to 40% in 2010.
Lake Maracaibo to face many environmental threats such as pollution from tankers, the overgrowth of duckweed, which operates in the valley of nutrients made as a result of subsidence, and hydrocarbon extraction Maracaibo Basin. Pollution has also weakened the lake of Valencia and the government is trying to improve the quality of water in the lake.
Venezuela’s threat to the environment and indigenous communities, will continue to grow as the government pursues a strategy of development based on the exploitation of minerals like gold and oil revenues. Grand infrastructure projects is also difficult to manage and build. However, the reduction of social inequalities on people, investing in education and health to improve the economy grew expertise and cohesive society.
I was really steel myself to read about the terrible case of Edlington boys tortured by. I have two children themselves, and although mine are older now, I remember all too clearly to worry when they do not come home at the time they said they would, or if they happen to be where I thought they were, etc. .. I’m sure most parents are the same, but few can imagine the horror of what these parents must have endured when they heard the sickening extent of the difficulties experienced by their young boys.
The victims, aged 9 and 11 only had hospital treatment and counseling. They, with their families, have sympathy for the nation. What they did not, however, is justice.
The attackers, boys 10 and 11, were taken to a prison for juveniles, for an indefinite period, which is “rehabilitated.” In five years of his sentence will be evaluated and the possibility exists that they may be released. His mother moved from her home by police for his protection and his father still lives in the same town where the attack occurred. None of the families have been appointed, all of their identity protected.
I think that both the mother and the father of the attackers should be thrown into prison, where he throws the key after them. I do not think that their children are solely responsible for the assault, are the main perpetrators of this crime, the parents, who have two innocent people into monsters without conscience.
These boys have never learned how to behave, they have probably never felt loved and appreciated, they could not understand the importance of respect or trust, in fact, they probably have not even heard these words at home . I see these boys did not differ from wild animals that were released to their parents, “This is wickedness. In addition, they are more dangerous than even the most ferocious wild animals as they attack to survive the attack to relieve their boredom and live sexual fantasies and violent films they have seen terrible they don ‘ would never have been allowed to see.
I read that there was a sign outside the family home, which read “Beware of children.” How can any self-respecting parent give a character like this? It means admitting that children are a threat to anyone approaching the house, and it is completely sums up the attitude of the mother and the father of these boys who do not deserve the title as parents.
Newspapers and TV news channels are busy reporting that the fault lies with the government, in reference to the availability of more benefits made possible for parents to stay home, smoke marijuana, drink alcohol and watch the violence, pornographic film. While it is fine, there are many families claiming benefits to genuine reasons, producing beautiful children, reputable and well-trained who do not resort to senseless, immoral activity.
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Other fingers of blame to refer to the Department of Social Services who have no children of what was so obviously not compatible with my home for the children.
Police were also attacked, being accused of not communicating properly with the social services that contribute to the mistake of leaving the two boys in question can be provided by an elderly couple, just three weeks before they released their terrifying attack.
Apparently there have been many calls for the authorities incidents of antisocial behavior and violence, but because the children were under criminal responsibility, nothing shall be done. Paper some of the horrendous crimes carried elder brothers, for example, robbery and stabbing an elderly woman, a burglary, a real behavior of life-threatening, intimidating, offensive, etc.
It is very easy to blame social services to the police and the police to blame the bureaucracy, but surely, the ball must leave the parents?
These parents need to point and punished.
All the time that parents know that they are mainly responsible for the crimes of their children is not to prevent such abuses.
These people have created monsters and have them delivered to a life of misery, a misery that has spread in the lives of others, and could destroy anyone in his way.
Sierra Leone is a country in West Africa, which has suffered badly due to the ongoing activities of the rebels from 1991 to 2002. This nation is heavily dependent on its mining – a diamond mining company in particular – but progress has been particularly slow because of corruption and riots of the civil society.
Diamonds in Sierra Leone are controversial, because many of them are not exactly legal. Not all diamonds are produced annually, valued at approximately $ 250-300000000, tubes are channeled through legal, but many are smuggled. These so-called “blood diamonds” are widely known to be used for Finace in illegal activities like money laundering.
In 2001, the United States for an embargo on diamonds from Sierra Leone. Since the 1990s, diamonds from Sierra Leone were used to finance the RUF or Revolutionary United Front – led by Corporal Foday Sankoh.
Sierra Leone’s diamonds were mined in 1935. 1000000 + carat corrected within two years from first discovery, more than 55 million carats were extracted by the company De Beers in 1930 and 1998.
DeBeers, the only company granted the mining rights of the Government of Sierra Leone until 1955, has been mining and distribution of diamonds in Sierra Leone alone since the year he turned his first diamond.
In the film Blood Diamond, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, presumably under pressure, the film’s producers, a disclaimer indicating that the events depicted in the film are fictional, but the company has denied this.
The diamonds of Sierra Leone have reportedly been illegally out of the Spirits 75 000 miners in 1955. In the same year, the new administration to stop the monopoly of De Beers diamond trade in Sierra Leone, and to allow other companies to move in.
When the rebellion broke out in 1990, rebel forces said they had funded their activities through the theft of diamonds. Thus, the term “blood diamonds”.
Diamond trade continued to finance the RUF rebels, who continued uprisings against the government. Despite the head between the RUF and the government, the bloodshed continues. You can stop the anarchy, and then the United Nations adopted a directive that no one would buy diamonds in Sierra Leone, legally.
There were some countries such as Liberia, however, that continued the diamond trade in Sierra Leone. It was a profitable underground, and these unscrupulous people do not care about the impact, winning their nefarious activities financially.
Diamonds from Sierra Leone was sold on the open market in Liberia until the neighboring nation has exported more than four times the size of their diamond production – including those in the blood of diamond suppliers list.
Currently, certifications to distinguish legally marketed diamonds from Sierra Leone diamonds. These certificates are designed to ensure that no one buyer will be to support the killings that have ravaged the country.
This directive is not infallible and it is not entirely due to the illegal trade in diamonds in Sierra Leone
There are many diamonds from African countries like Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo and other neighboring countries. Many people lost their lives due to this type of diamonds as the product of these stones are used to support the brutal regime, civil wars and other acts of violence around the world. People who work in research and exploitation of these diamonds are being abused. Children are forced to work in hazardous areas and conditions. Usually, these children have no education and living in extreme poverty. Consequently, one can think that the work of the diamond is the only way for them to live and make some money. For these reasons, it is difficult to determine where a diamond comes from.
What is the Kimberley Process?
In 2003, the United Nations in the diamond industry worked together and many others have presented a process to certify diamonds, and will not be used to finance the war and violations of human rights. Its purpose is to stop access to the diamonds Bloods legitimate diamond market. In addition, the process acts as a monitoring body that oversees the companies involved in diamond trading countries. As a result, organizations that want to sell their diamonds to certify that their diamonds are conflict.
The state no conflict as a diamond refers to the way how it is produced. These diamonds have been mined, cut and polished in a socially and environmentally responsible. They are a quality product and offer a greater price.
Other aspects of the
When you buy a diamond, ask your dealer or jeweler check the documents in the diamond processing. And ‘possible to associate the position of the diamond mines, where it is treated, as well as its serial number engraved.
Also, you should choose the form you want to buy. Another important thing to do is check the level of transparency of the diamond. Remember that the perfect diamond that is free of all imperfections is very rare to find. You should also compare a number of diamonds to get a good idea of what you may find that your budget. Your budget should be examined to determine how much you can spend. It is best to look more closely at the diamonds. Take your final decision based on the best diamond cut, clarity, carat and color. These are important qualities that will help you get the best stone for your money.
Diamonds have always been regarded as women want jewelry. Over the years, diamonds have created problems, conflicts, and a number of environmental considerations. Some believe that the problems that cause the diamonds are becoming obsolete because of the appearance of a lab-grown diamonds. People are initially fooled term lab, where it is called, because they think it’s a mock-up. In previous years, or synthetic diamonds grown in the laboratory had a negative ultrasound. Today, they are highly accepted by all and not only its logical consistency, which is almost identical to natural diamond, and its quality, but because the synthetic diamonds have been able to solve the problems of natural diamonds that are stirred up.
You see, behind the glow of beauty and elegance, of course, has acquired a diamond is a dark story of how it was done, and the negative effects it causes to the environment. You need to put in mind that when you purchase a natural diamond, it is condoning child labor and other inhumane practices. More often than not. People from Africa, also considering killing other people just so they could get their hands on the diamond and sold on the market. In addition to this, of course, the diamonds purchased are also trafficked to different places in the world, because they have an on-demand. This acquisition was not only makes it extremely dangerous to humans, but also very cruel. This, together with other factors, has brought the prices of natural diamonds.
In addition, the purchase of natural diamonds, which are also allowing the destruction of the environment. Think about that second one carat diamond of a gem extract almost 275 tons of ore. It’s an impressive number that puts the environment in a highly stressful situation. The strip of open pit mining method is used to extract diamonds from the earth. This method destroys the local ecosystem and other environmental damage. This method is extremely dangerous and destructive only adds to the many problems the country in which it was taken. Ultimately, there are more who are shooting in the foot.
Synthetic diamonds are resolved all major issues]. And, more importantly, synthetic diamonds are almost perfect tandem with real diamonds. The “Blood Diamond” movie requires a strong message about the need for a change in the diamond mines. Lab Diamonds, for example, parts of the ecosystem to be destroyed because they are created by machines. For this reason, the price is considerably reduced. Moreover, unions and illegal war lords also lose their means of doing business. This could result in dismissal of child labor, supplies, weapons and violence related to mining.
In addition to the attractions of Wilmington Illinois hospital itself, there are other historical attractions nearby that are worth a family visit. These include abandoned coal mines of Braidwood, headquarters of the United Workers Union of Mines and the scene of frequent gross exploitation of workers in mining and the violence of the work done by unions and businesses. Also worth a visit are the old Braidwood depot and station art deco ceramic tile. Braidwood is also the host of a nuclear reactor beyond the city limits. If you come to Wilmington and Kankakee County, Kankakee River State Park, follow the road. Enter 102 in Wilmington. The second light is Main Street in the center of the ancient city of Wilmington neighborhood and specialty stores.